Issue 34 November 2023

Issue 33 August 2023

Issue 32 June 2023

Issue 31 February 2023

Issue 30 November 2022

Issue 29 August 2022

Issue 28 May 2022

Issue 27 February 2022

Issue 26 November 2021

Issue 25 August 2021

Issue 24 May 2021

Issue 23 February 2021

Issue 22 November 2020

Issue 21 August 2020

Issue 20 May 2020

Issue 19 February 2020

Letter from the Editor –Lindsay Preston Zappas
Parasites in Love –Travis Diehl
To Crush Absolute On Patrick Staff and
Destroying the Institution
–Jonathan Griffin
Victoria Fu:
Camera Obscured
–Cat Kron
Resurgence of Resistance How Pattern & Decoration's Popularity
Can Help Reshape the Canon
–Catherine Wagley
Trace, Place, Politics Julie Mehretu's Coded Abstractions
–Jessica Simmons
Exquisite L.A.: Featuring: Friedrich Kunath,
Tristan Unrau, and Nevine Mahmoud
–Claressinka Anderson & Joe Pugliese
Reviews April Street
at Vielmetter Los Angeles
–Aaron Horst

Chiraag Bhakta
at Human Resources
–Julie Weitz

Don’t Think: Tom, Joe
and Rick Potts

at POTTS
–Matt Stromberg

Sarah McMenimen
at Garden
–Michael Wright

The Medea Insurrection
at the Wende Museum
–Jennifer Remenchik

(L.A. in N.Y.)
Mike Kelley
at Hauser & Wirth
–Angella d’Avignon
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Issue 18 November 2019

Letter from the Editor –Lindsay Preston Zappas
The Briar and the Tar Nayland Blake at the ICA LA
and Matthew Marks Gallery
–Travis Diehl
Putting Aesthetics
to Hope
Tracking Photography’s Role
in Feminist Communities
– Catherine Wagley
Instagram STARtists
and Bad Painting
– Anna Elise Johnson
Interview with Jamillah James – Lindsay Preston Zappas
Working Artists Featuring Catherine Fairbanks,
Paul Pescador, and Rachel Mason
Text: Lindsay Preston Zappas
Photos: Jeff McLane
Reviews Children of the Sun
at LADIES’ ROOM
– Jessica Simmons

Derek Paul Jack Boyle
at SMART OBJECTS
–Aaron Horst

Karl Holmqvist
at House of Gaga, Los Angeles
–Lee Purvey

Katja Seib
at Château Shatto
–Ashton Cooper

Jeanette Mundt
at Overduin & Co.
–Matt Stromberg
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Issue 17 August 2019

Letter From the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
Green Chip David Hammons
at Hauser & Wirth
–Travis Diehl
Whatever Gets You
Through the Night
The Artists of Dilexi
and Wartime Trauma
–Jonathan Griffin
Generous Collectors How the Grinsteins
Supported Artists
–Catherine Wagley
Interview with
Donna Huanca
–Lindsy Preston Zappas
Working Artist Featuring Ragen Moss, Justen LeRoy,
and Bari Ziperstein
Text: Lindsay Preston Zappas
Photos: Jeff McLane
Reviews Sarah Lucas
at the Hammer Museum
–Yxta Maya Murray

George Herms and Terence Koh
at Morán Morán
–Matt Stromberg

Hannah Hur
at Bel Ami
–Michael Wright

Sebastian Hernandez
at NAVEL
–Julie Weitz

(L.A. in N.Y.)
Alex Israel
at Greene Naftali
–Rosa Tyhurst

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Issue 16 May 2019

Trulee Hall's Untamed Magic Catherine Wagley
Ingredients for a Braver Art Scene Ceci Moss
I Shit on Your Graves Travis Diehl
Interview with Ruby Neri Jonathan Griffin
Carolee Schneemann and the Art of Saying Yes! Chelsea Beck
Exquisite L.A. Claressinka Anderson
Joe Pugliese
Reviews Ry Rocklen
at Honor Fraser
–Cat Kron

Rob Thom
at M+B
–Lindsay Preston Zappas

Soul of a Nation: Art in the Age
of Black Power, 1963-1983
at The Broad
–Matt Stromberg

Anna Sew Hoy & Diedrick Brackens
at Various Small Fires
–Aaron Horst

Julia Haft-Candell & Suzan Frecon
at Parrasch Heijnen
–Jessica Simmons

(L.A. in N.Y.)
Shahryar Nashat
at Swiss Institute
–Christie Hayden
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Issue 15 February 2019

Letter From the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
Letter to the Editor
Men on Women
Geena Brown
Eyes Without a Voice
Julian Rosefeldt's Manifesto
Christina Catherine Martinez
Seven Minute Dream Machine
Jordan Wolfson's (Female figure)
Travis Diehl
Laughing in Private
Vanessa Place's Rape Jokes
Catherine Wagley
Interview with
Rosha Yaghmai
Laura Brown
Exquisite L.A.
Featuring: Patrick Martinez,
Ramiro Gomez, and John Valadez
Claressinka Anderson
Joe Pugliese
Reviews Outliers and American
Vanguard Art at LACMA
–Jonathan Griffin

Sperm Cult
at LAXART
–Matt Stromberg

Kahlil Joseph
at MOCA PDC
–Jessica Simmons

Ingrid Luche
at Ghebaly Gallery
–Lindsay Preston Zappas

Matt Paweski
at Park View / Paul Soto
–John Zane Zappas

Trenton Doyle Hancock
at Shulamit Nazarian
–Colony Little

(L.A. in N.Y.)
Catherine Opie
at Lehmann Maupin
–Angella d'Avignon
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Issue 14 November 2018

Letter From the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
Celeste Dupuy-Spencer and Figurative Religion Catherine Wagley
Lynch in Traffic Travis Diehl
The Remixed Symbology of Nina Chanel Abney Lindsay Preston Zappas
Interview with Kulapat Yantrasast Christie Hayden
Exquisite L.A.
Featuring: Sandra de la Loza, Gloria Galvez, and Steve Wong
Claressinka Anderson
Photos: Joe Pugliese
Reviews Raúl de Nieves
at Freedman Fitzpatrick
-Aaron Horst

Gertrud Parker
at Parker Gallery
-Ashton Cooper

Robert Yarber
at Nicodim Gallery
-Jonathan Griffin

Nikita Gale
at Commonwealth & Council
-Simone Krug

Lari Pittman
at Regen Projects
-Matt Stromberg

(L.A. in N.Y.)
Eckhaus Latta
at the Whitney Museum
of American Art
-Angella d'Avignon
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Issue 13 August 2018

Letter From the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
Letter to the Editor Julie Weitz with Angella d'Avignon
Don't Make
Everything Boring
Catherine Wagley
The Collaborative Art
World of Norm Laich
Matt Stromberg
Oddly Satisfying Art Travis Diehl
Made in L.A. 2018 Reviews Claire de Dobay Rifelj
Jennifer Remenchik
Aaron Horst
Exquisite L.A.
Featuring: Anna Sew Hoy, Guadalupe Rosales, and Shizu Saldamando
Claressinka Anderson
Photos: Joe Pugliese
Reviews It's Snowing in LA
at AA|LA
–Matthew Lax

Fiona Conner
at the MAK Center
–Thomas Duncan

Show 2
at The Gallery @ Michael's
–Simone Krug

Deborah Roberts
at Luis De Jesus Los Angeles
–Ikechukwu Casmir Onyewuenyi

Mimi Lauter
at Blum & Poe
–Jessica Simmons

(L.A. in N.Y.)
Math Bass
at Mary Boone
–Ashton Cooper

(L.A. in N.Y.)
Condo New York
–Laura Brown
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Issue 12 May 2018

Poetic Energies and
Radical Celebrations:
Senga Nengudi and Maren Hassinger
Simone Krug
Interior States of the Art Travis Diehl
Perennial Bloom:
Florals in Feminism
and Across L.A.
Angella d'Avignon
The Mess We're In Catherine Wagley
Interview with Christina Quarles Ashton Cooper
Object Project
Featuring Suné Woods, Michelle Dizon,
and Yong Soon Min
Lindsay Preston Zappas
Photos: Jeff McLane
Reviews Meleko Mokgosi
at The Fowler Museum at UCLA
-Jessica Simmons

Chris Kraus
at Chateau Shatto
- Aaron Horst

Ben Sanders
at Ochi Projects
- Matt Stromberg

iris yirei hsu
at the Women's Center
for Creative Work
- Hana Cohn

Harald Szeemann
at the Getty Research Institute
- Olivian Cha

Ali Prosch
at Bed and Breakfast
- Jennifer Remenchik

Reena Spaulings
at Matthew Marks
- Thomas Duncan
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Issue 11 February 2018

Letter from the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
Museum as Selfie Station Matt Stromberg
Accessible as Humanly as Possible Catherine Wagley
On Laura Owens on Laura Owens Travis Diehl
Interview with Puppies Puppies Jonathan Griffin
Object Project Lindsay Preston Zappas, Jeff McLane
Reviews Dulce Dientes
at Rainbow in Spanish
- Aaron Horst

Adrián Villas Rojas
at The Geffen Contemporary at MOCA
- Lindsay Preston Zappas

Nevine Mahmoud
at M+B
- Angella D'Avignon

Radical Women: Latin American Art, 1960- 1985
at the Hammer Museum
- Thomas Duncan

Hannah Greely and William T. Wiley
at Parker Gallery
- Keith J. Varadi

David Hockney
at The Metropolitan Museum of Art (L.A. in N.Y.)
- Ashton Cooper

Edgar Arceneaux
at Yerba Buena Center for the Arts (L.A. in S.F.)
- Hana Cohn
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Issue 10 November 2017

Letter from the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
Barely Living with Art:
The Labor of Domestic
Spaces in Los Angeles
Eli Diner
She Wanted Adventure:
Dwan, Butler, Mizuno, Copley
Catherine Wagley
The Languages of
All-Women Exhibitions
Lindsay Preston Zappas
L.A. Povera Travis Diehl
On Eclipses:
When Language
and Photography Fail
Jessica Simmons
Interview with
Hamza Walker
Julie Wietz
Object Project
Featuring: Rosha Yaghmai,
Dianna Molzan, and Patrick Jackson
Lindsay Preston Zappas
Photos by Jeff McLane
Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA
Reviews
Regen Projects
Ibid Gallery
One National Gay & Lesbian Archives and MOCA PDC
The Mistake Room
Luis De Jesus Gallery
the University Art Gallery at CSULB
the Autry Museum
Reviews Cheyenne Julien
at Smart Objects

Paul Mpagi Sepuya
at team bungalow

Ravi Jackson
at Richard Telles

Tactility of Line
at Elevator Mondays

Trigger: Gender as a Tool as a Weapon
at the New Museum
(L.A. in N.Y.)
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Issue 9 August 2017

Letter from the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
Women on the Plinth Catherine Wagley
Us & Them, Now & Then:
Reconstituting Group Material
Travis Diehl
The Offerings of EJ Hill
Ikechukwu Casmir Onyewuenyi
Interview with Jenni Sorkin Carmen Winant
Object Project
Featuring: Rebecca Morris,
Linda Stark, Alex Olson
Lindsay Preston Zappas
Photos by Jeff McClane
Reviews Mark Bradford
at the Venice Biennale

Broken Language
at Shulamit Nazarian

Artists of Color
at the Underground Museum

Anthony Lepore & Michael Henry Hayden
at Del Vaz Projects

Home
at LACMA

Analia Saban at
Sprueth Magers
Letter to the Editor Lady Parts, Lady Arts
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Issue 8 May 2017

Letter from the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
Kanye Westworld Travis Diehl
@richardhawkins01 Thomas Duncan
Support Structures:
Alice Könitz and LAMOA
Catherine Wagley
Interview with
Penny Slinger
Eliza Swann
Exquisite L.A.
Featuring:
taisha paggett
Ashley Hunt
Young Chung
Intro by Claressinka Anderson
Portraits by Joe Pugliese
Reviews Alessandro Pessoli
at Marc Foxx

Jennie Jieun Lee
at The Pit

Trisha Baga
at 356 Mission

Jimmie Durham
at The Hammer

Parallel City
at Ms. Barbers

Jason Rhodes
at Hauser & Wirth
Letter to the Editor
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Issue 7 February 2017

Letter from the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
Generous
Structures
Catherine Wagley
Put on a Happy Face:
On Dynasty Handbag
Travis Diehl
The Limits of Animality:
Simone Forti at ISCP
(L.A. in N.Y.)
Ikechukwu Casmir Onyewuenyi
More Wound Than Ruin:
Evaluating the
"Human Condition"
Jessica Simmons
Exquisite L.A.
Featuring:
Brenna Youngblood
Todd Gray
Rafa Esparza
Intro by Claressinka Anderson
Portraits by Joe Pugliese
Reviews Creature
at The Broad

Sam Pulitzer & Peter Wachtler
at House of Gaga // Reena Spaulings Fine Art

Karl Haendel
at Susanne Vielmetter

Wolfgang Tillmans
at Regen Projects

Ma
at Chateau Shatto

The Rat Bastard Protective Association
at the Landing
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Issue 6 November 2016

Letter from the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
Kenneth Tam
's Basement
Travis Diehl
The Female
Cool School
Catherine Wagley
The Rise
of the L.A.
Art Witch
Amanda Yates Garcia
Interview with
Mernet Larsen
Julie Weitz
Agnes Martin
at LACMA
Jessica Simmons
Exquisite L.A.
Featuring:
Analia Saban
Ry Rocklen
Sarah Cain
Intro by Claressinka Anderson
Portraits by Joe Pugliese
Reviews
Made in L.A. 2016
at The Hammer Museum

Doug Aitken
at The Geffen Contemporary at MOCA

Mertzbau
at Tif Sigfrids

Jean-Pascal Flavian and Mika Tajima
at Kayne Griffin Corcoran

Mark A. Rodruigez
at Park View

The Weeping Line
Organized by Alter Space
at Four Six One Nine
(S.F. in L.A.)
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Issue 5 August 2016

Letter form the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
Non-Fiction
at The Underground Museum
Catherine Wagley
The Art of Birth Carmen Winant
Escape from Bunker Hill
John Knight
at REDCAT
Travis Diehl
Ed Boreal Speaks Benjamin Lord
Art Advice (from Men) Sarah Weber
Routine Pleasures
at the MAK Center
Jonathan Griffin
Exquisite L.A.
Featuring:
Fay Ray
John Baldessari
Claire Kennedy
Intro by Claressinka Anderson
Portraits by Joe Pugliese
Reviews Revolution in the Making
at Hauser Wirth & Schimmel

Carl Cheng
at Cherry and Martin

Joan Snyder
at Parrasch Heijnen Gallery

Elanor Antin
at Diane Rosenstein

Performing the Grid
at Ben Maltz Gallery
at Otis College of Art & Design

Laura Owens
at The Wattis Institute
(L.A. in S.F.)
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Issue 4 May 2016

Letter from the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
Moon, laub, and Love Catherine Wagley
Walk Artisanal Jonathan Griffin
Reconsidering
Marva Marrow's
Inside the L.A. Artist
Anthony Pearson
Mystery Science Thater:
Diana Thater
at LACMA
Aaron Horst
Informal Feminisms Federica Bueti and Jan Verwoert
Marva Marrow Photographs
Lita Albuquerque
Interiors and Interiority:
Njideka Akunyili Crosby
Char Jansen
Reviews L.A. Art Fairs

Material Art Fair, Mexico City

Rain Room
at LACMA

Evan Holloway
at David Kordansky Gallery

Histories of a Vanishing Present: A Prologue
at The Mistake Room

Carter Mull
at fused space
(L.A. in S.F.)

Awol Erizku
at FLAG Art Foundation
(L.A. in N.Y.)
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Issue 3 February 2016

Letter from the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
Le Louvre, Las Vegas Evan Moffitt
iPhones, Flesh,
and the Word:
F.B.I.
at Arturo Bandini
Lindsay Preston Zappas
Women Talking About Barney Catherine Wagley
Lingua Ignota:
Faith Wilding
at The Armory Center
for the Arts
and LOUDHAILER
Benjamin Lord
A Conversation
with Amalia Ulman
Char Jansen
How We Practice Carmen Winant
Share Your Piece
of the Puzzle
Federica Bueti
Amanda Ross-Ho Photographs
Erik Frydenborg
Reviews Honeydew
at Michael Thibault

Fred Tomaselli
at California State University, Fullerton

Trisha Donnelly
at Matthew Marks Gallery

Bradford Kessler
at ASHES/ASHES
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Issue 2 November 2015

Letter from the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
Hot Tears Carmen Winant
Slow View:
Molly Larkey
Anna Breininger and Kate Whitlock
Americanicity's Paintings:
Orion Martin
at Favorite Goods
Tracy Jeanne Rosenthal
Layers of Leimert Park Catherine Wagley
Junkspace Junk Food:
Parker Ito
at Kaldi, Smart Objects,
White Cube, and
Château Shatto
Evan Moffitt
Melrose Hustle Keith Vaughn
Max Maslansky Photographs
Monica Majoli
at the Tom of Finland Foundation
White Lee, Black Lee:
William Pope.L’s "Reenactor"
Travis Diehl
Dora Budor Interview Char Jensen
Reviews Mary Ried Kelley
at The Hammer Museum

Tongues Untied
at MOCA Pacific Design Center

No Joke
at Tanya Leighton
(L.A. in Berlin)
Snap Reviews Martin Basher at Anat Ebgi
Body Parts I-V at ASHES ASHES
Eve Fowler at Mier Gallery
Matt Siegle at Park View
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Issue 1 August 2015

Letter from the Editor Lindsay Preston Zappas
MEAT PHYSICS/
Metaphysical L.A.
Travis Diehl
Art for Art’s Sake:
L.A. in the 1990s
Anthony Pearson
A Dialogue in Two
Synchronous Atmospheres
Erik Morse
with Alexandra Grant
SOGTFO
at François Ghebaly
Jonathan Griffin
#studio #visit
with #devin #kenny
@barnettcohen
Mateo Tannatt
Photographs
Jibade-Khalil Huffman
Slow View:
Discussion on One Work
Anna Breininger
with Julian Rogers
Reviews Pierre Huyghe
at LACMA

Mernet Larsen
at Various Small Fires

John Currin
at Gagosian, Beverly Hills

Pat O'Niell
at Cherry and Martin

A New Rhythm
at Park View

Unwatchable Scenes and
Other Unreliable Images...
at Public Fiction

Charles Gaines
at The Hammer Museum

Henry Taylor
at Blum & Poe/ Untitled
(L.A. in N.Y.)
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Urs Fischer at Gagosian

Urs Fischer, Denominator (installation view) (2020–22). Database, algorithms, and LED cube, 141.75 × 141.75 × 141.75 inches. © Urs Fischer. Gagosian, Los Angeles, 2023. Image courtesy of the artist and Gagosian. Photo: Jeff McLane.

I last saw Urs Fischer’s work in mid-2019. It was PLAY (2018), a sculpture-meets-dance-meets-animation piece that featured nine office chairs moving about the galleries at Jeffrey Deitch. The robotic dance party was aided by a network of cameras that processed and predicted how gallery-goers engaged with the furniture, and by choreographer Madeline Hollander, who introduced the human feeling of chance into the movements of the computerized chairs.1 But the most inquisitive aspect of PLAY is that the chairs were programmed to continuously learn from their movements and interactions with the audience—they were learning to play, fine-tuning their performances along the way. Here was artificial intelligence throwing a wrench in performance theory.2 Naturally, I was hooked.

I can’t advance the same enthusiasm about Denominator (2020–22), Fischer’s most recent jaunt in Los Angeles presented with Gagosian. Rather than chairs, Fischer turned his algorithmic theater on TV commercials—story-driven images pedaling products that we think we need. Installed inside a former Wells Fargo Bank on North Camden Drive in Beverly Hills (a temporary site for Gagosian exhibitions), Denominator is an endless montage of commercials culled from social media and broadcast television dating back to the 1950s, when color TVs first landed in U.S. homes.3 Fischer and his team scraped the likes of YouTube (where many ads can be accessed) and TikTok, archiving an initial 70 thousand commercials from across the globe. The artist submitted these ads to machine-learning algorithms (e.g., CLIP-trained models), which used customized code to cut up and then categorize the commercials by content, color, and composition.4 Presented as a deluge of deconstructed imagery, the slapdash sensibility of Denominator deviates from mass-produced advertising in that there’s no clear audience in mind. What, then, is being sold? Nothing new beyond what’s already in the ether. This is partly why my enthusiasm wavers towards Denominator relative to PLAY. While the latter work evinced an uncanny surprise, if I strip away the masterful, albeit clichéd, storytelling in TV ads, what Denominator regurgitates are semblances of image spam that ultimately generate the same consumerist impulse.5

In form, however, Denominator captivates—the piece is a colossal, 12-foot video monitor cube that plays its breakneck footage on all of its visible surfaces. The ads appear in incomplete clips, completely siphoned off from their original commercial context. In one sequence, a cute cat crouches before a bowl near another clip of a tennis player in a white shirt, his back hunching away from the camera in an echo of the crouched feline. Other cat ads, such as the “Mjau Mjau Mjau Flygresor.se” commercial, inexplicitly surround the tennis player. What you get is a “physically compelling” montage of ads that visually captivate, such that “our eyes are almost continually drawn to the screen.”6 Compelling, however, turns to cute, chaotic, and then visibly confused. It’s all very bizarre and zany, if we understand theorist Sianne Ngai’s definition of zaniness as “physical bombardment” that pushes toward “strenuous and even precarious extremes.”7 Indeed, sitting with this glut of video montages not only requires effort, but would also take a lifetime.

Consider this, though: Fischer wanted to present these commercials in a way that deemphasized their narrative pull and honed in on the marketable images that linger in our subconscious; he also intentionally overloaded Denominator with images so that, in his words, “no image has a chance to become prominent.”8 But opting for associative editing gets in the way of the latter goal. The algorithm doesn’t trouble this visual sense of prominence. For instance, the same Flygresor.se cat commercial appears twice in one frame. Or, there’s a moment where Denominator churns out a cluster of coffee cups from illycaffé, Costa Coffee, All Café, and Starbucks, all of them sitting merrily side by side on the screen. Yes, these cut-up, colliding images are deconstructed versions of the original ads. But, a new image undeniably comes into prominence. In this sequence of shots, I can’t help but think about coffee, which inadvertently heightens the economic function of this pictorial landscape. I guess that’s why I’m on the fence about Denominator: It only produces more irrelevant images that circulate in a culture already oversaturated with machine-made image spam.

In the 1930s, Walter Benjamin remarked on the “new objectivity” of photography, which transfigures “misery itself [into] an object of pleasure, by treating it stylishly and with technical perfection.”9 This treatment is informed by what Benjamin calls the “current fashion,” noting that photography can be wielded towards not only economic but also political ends.10 I would argue that Benjamin’s “new” photographic turn would now include advertisements—images driven by an “economic function” that “bring to the masses elements which they could not previously enjoy.”11 Denominator attempts, with questionable success, to sit outside the pleasure and politics of it all. But Fischer knows the danger of advertising imagery—he’s shared his worry that ads have replaced the “images we have inside us.”12 However, it seems that Denominator doubles down on instilling a barrage of new images, which, absent of narrative, introduces a troubling plethora of visual data culled from absurd algorithms. Because if ads are supposedly harmful to our internal image, what benefit lies in audiences viewing and potentially encoding these wanton images into iconic memory?

Owing to this doubling down, Denominator reads less as a send up than a submission to the givens of society. One such given is commerce. It’s not lost on me that Denominator was installed in a vacated bank, the conduit for consumerist activities. While I applaud Fischer for his zany separation of these ads from their typical convention—to sell products— the site of the former bank implicitly reinscribed the economic function of these commercials, thereby reaffirming their original intent: to persuade people to blindly trust in consumer products. In contrast, cultural theorist Stuart Hall writes that our “way[s] of seeing” mediatized culture must involve “looking hard and straight” at “lush advertising.”13 Fischer doesn’t make this type of looking possible since his algorithms prioritize the aesthetic over the social dimension. That is, the pictorial overload in Denominator is stylized, rendered into a preexisting logic of advertisement that’s hellbent on bombarding us with aestheticized, involuted TV images to the point of confusion. And ain’t nobody got time for that—we’ve got enough spam in our inboxes.

This review was originally published in Carla issue 34.

Urs Fischer, Denominator (installation view) (2020–22). Database, algorithms, and LED cube, 141.75 × 141.75 × 141.75 inches. © Urs Fischer. Gagosian, Los Angeles, 2023. Image courtesy of the artist and Gagosian. Photo: Jeff McLane.

Urs Fischer, Denominator (installation view) (2020–22). Database, algorithms, and LED cube, 141.75 × 141.75 × 141.75 inches. © Urs Fischer. Gagosian, Los Angeles, 2023. Image courtesy of the artist and Gagosian. Photo: Jeff McLane.

Urs Fischer, Denominator (installation view) (2020–22). Database, algorithms, and LED cube, 141.75 × 141.75 × 141.75 inches. © Urs Fischer. Gagosian, Los Angeles, 2023. Image courtesy of the artist and Gagosian. Photo: Jeff McLane.

Urs Fischer, Denominator (installation view) (2020–22). Database, algorithms, and LED cube, 141.75 × 141.75 × 141.75 inches. © Urs Fischer. Gagosian, Los Angeles, 2023. Image courtesy of the artist and Gagosian. Photo: Jeff McLane.

  1. Angela Brown, “Who Is Choreographing Whom? A Conversation with Madeline Hollander,” Gagosian Quarterly, September 7, 2018, https://gagosian.com/quarterly/2018/09/07/who-choreographing-whom-conversation-madeline-holl.
  2. Performance theory holds that robots don’t have interpretative skills. See Philip Auslander, “Humanoid Boogie: Reflections on Robotic Performance,” in Staging Philosophy: Intersections of Theater, Performance, and Philosophy, eds. David Krasner and David Z. Saltz (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006), 91.
  3. This treatment of commercials aligns with Sergei Eisenstein’s writings on montage in film: “the montage of attractions…liberates film from the plot-based script and for the first time takes account of film material, both thematically and formally, in the construction.” See S. M. Eisenstein, Selected Works Volume I: Writings, 1922-34, ed. and trans. Richard Taylor (London: British Film Institute, 1988), 40.
  4. Eric Sanders, “Urs Fischer: Denominator,” Gagosian Quarterly, Winter 2022, https://gagosian.com/quarterly/2022/10/26/interview-urs-fischer-denominator/.
  5. Fischer likens the pictorial overload in Denominator to “cultures and religions that had no images…antiiconography.” See Sanders, “Urs Fischer: Denominator.”
  6. Patrick Barwise and Andrew Ehrenberg, Television and its Audience, SAGE Communications in Society, ed. Jeremy Tunstall (London: SAGE, 1988), 126, quoted in Paul Rutherford, The New Icons? The Art of Television Advertising (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994), 170.
  7. Sianne Ngai, Our Aesthetic Categories: Zany, Cute, Interesting (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012), 184–5.
  8. Sanders, “Urs Fischer: Denominator.”
  9. Walter Benjamin, “The Author as Producer,” New Left Review I/62 (July–August 1970), http://www.celinecondorelli.eu/files/benjamin-the-author-as-producer.pdf.
  10. Benjamin, “The Author as Producer.”
  11. Benjamin, “The Author as Producer.”
  12. Sanders, “Urs Fischer: Denominator.”
  13. Stuart Hall, Writings on Media: History of the Present, ed. Charlotte Brunsdon (Durham: Duke University Press, 2021), 30.

Ikechukwu Onyewuenyi is a curator and writer based in Los Angeles. He serves on the editorial board of X-TRA.

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